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The advent of the new college entrance examination era is not easy to adhere to, but worthy.

Release time: 2018-05-22
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The college entrance examination has never been only a matter of nearly 10 million "home-based candidates" family, but a major concern of the whole society, because the college entrance examination has long been not only the "baton" of basic education. It is also a "reducing valve" for maintaining social stability. Therefore, the reform of the college entrance examination aroused the attentions of the whole society. After Shanghai and Zhejiang took the lead in launching the comprehensive reform of the college entrance examination in 2014, several provinces joined the new round of pilots this year, which means that the new college entrance examination era has arrived.

However, although the first round of reforms aimed to break the "one test for life", expand students' self-selection rights, regardless of liberal arts and increase university autonomy, the college entrance examination reform has been controversial from the beginning, and the collective anxiety about the new college entrance examination reform is pervasive. Between parents, candidates and teachers.


As a weather vane of the college entrance examination reform, what achievements have been made in Zhejiang and Shanghai, and what "pits" have passed? What preparations should the provinces that are about to start the college entrance examination reform do? How close is the connection between universities and secondary schools? Recently, at the forum of “breaking the misunderstanding of recommended reforms – curriculum reform and talent training under the background of the new college entrance examination reform”, many experts pointed out that it is more tolerant of the college entrance examination reform, because any reform is gradually improved in the development process. The college entrance examination reform is no exception.


The phenomenon of “escape from physics” exists objectively


Problems arising in the reform must be resolved through reform


The phenomenon of “escape from physics” should be a “pit” encountered during the pilot reforms in Shanghai and Zhejiang.


When the new college entrance examinations in Shanghai and Zhejiang were just over, the media soon reported such a report: Shanghai’s candidates for physics subjects accounted for only 30% of the total, and among the nearly 300,000 candidates in Zhejiang, the physical examinations were also selected. There are only 80,000 people. The physics discipline seems to have been "disgusted" by candidates. Not only that, but the media also disclosed another survey result. In 2017, when Fudan University first unified the "University Physics", the overall failure rate of freshmen in Zhejiang and Shanghai students was much higher than in previous years.


After the new college entrance examination, the physics discipline was caught off guard.


Experts say that this phenomenon is understandable because it is an instinctive principle when people choose. After the reform of the college entrance examination, the new way of learning and the new method of assigning exams will inevitably bring new rules of choice.


An important reason why students do not choose physics is that physics is difficult to learn. Difficult to learn means that it is difficult to get high scores, which makes some students discouraged.


In addition, the new college entrance examination has adopted a new method of assigning scores to the three subjects selected, which has also aggravated this phenomenon.


The selection of examinations, the number of candidates for each examination subject is different from the structure of candidates, which will inevitably bring about the problem of comparison. In order to compare the relative equivalence between subjects, Zhejiang and Shanghai have adopted a method of graded points. That is to say, the level of a student's grade is determined by the position of all the candidates in the province.


Then let's analyze it. Students with good grades will choose physics regardless of the mode of assignment. Because some hot majors are the must-have things (electronics, architecture, computers, etc.) in colleges and universities, physics. To apply for these majors, you must choose physics. Students with poor grades may tend to give up more difficult physics regardless of the mode of assignment. Therefore, the method of assigning points has little effect on these two students. For students with medium grades, there are two choices. One is to apply for physics as well as those with good grades. However, due to the small number of applicants, it is highly probable that the grades are not ideal enough. Therefore, many people may conduct another Kind of choice - choose to give up just like poor students.


In this way, if the number of students enrolled is small, even students who are not very poor in their performance may be in a lower position due to too few people. This will cause more people to hesitate in their choices.


"The phenomenon of escaping from physics is objective." Liu Yuxiang, secretary of the Party Committee of the Shanghai Examinations Institute, told the China Youth Daily and Zhongqing Online reporters when summing up the gains and losses of the new college entrance examination.


Fortunately, after a full round of experiments, Shanghai and Zhejiang provinces of the reform pilot have carried out further research on this issue and improved the policy.


Zhejiang Province promulgated the "Several Opinions on Further Deepening the Comprehensive Reform of the College Entrance Examination". In response to the decline in the number of physical examinations, a safeguard mechanism has been established: when a certain number of examinations in a certain subject is less than the number of guarantees, the number is guaranteed. Grades are assigned to the base from high to low. How to understand? Zhejiang Province counted the number of students in the college entrance examinations in Zhejiang Province from 2013 to 2017. The number of students who received the physics subject was 65,000. This number can meet the needs of universities in and out of the province to select and train science and technology in Zhejiang Province. The most basic source of scientific professionals is needed. Once the number of physics subject test scores is less than the number of guarantees, the guarantee mechanism will be activated, and the number of guarantees (65,000) will be assigned to the prescribed scale from high to low. That is to say, if there are only 30,000 people who apply for physics, they will still be classified according to the base of 65,000.


"Reformation is the process of trial and error. It is impossible not to encounter problems. After a round of experiments, some problems have basically found effective solutions, such as physical selection." Chen Zhiwen, editor-in-chief of China Education Online, said, "No. The problem is impossible. We need to actively face the problems we encounter, actively find solutions according to local conditions, persist in reform, and solve problems through reform."


The college entrance examination reform has a downward impact on basic education


"Calculation" and "walking" test the principal's decision-making and planning ability


The significance of the college entrance examination reform pilot is not only to find the "ditch and ridge" on the road of reform, but the greater significance lies in the reform and transformation of the entire educational ecology.


Liu Haifeng, dean of the Xiamen University Education Research Institute and director of the Xiamen University Examination and Research Center, said that there have been many reforms in the past for the college entrance examination, but they are all reforms on one side or at a certain level. This reform has comprehensive thinking and overall Designed, involving all aspects of exam enrollment, is a system reform of top-level design.


The reform of the college entrance examination "leads one to launch the whole body", its changes will inevitably have a more profound impact on the basic education and upward education, and this change and influence can only be perfected while the reform progresses. .


Many people define the significance of the new college entrance examination: education has thus entered the "era of choice" - students have greater autonomy over what they learn and what they have tested.


Well, the problem is coming. When the new college entrance examination gives more choices to students, what can high school do?


Increasing the selectivity of the course is mainly the two aspects of “choosing” and “walking”. “This will test the principal's curriculum decision-making and planning ability, the teacher's curriculum development and implementation ability, and the students' curriculum selection and practice ability. Li Yongpei, a special teacher in Zhejiang Province and former head of Ningbo Middle School in Zhejiang Province, said that as a principal, there is a need for stable study time. I hope to plan a new teaching model with the minimum number of class changes and the shortest class study.


In fact, the simple "choice of class" and "walking class" is no stranger.


"As long as there are elective subjects, there will be elective classes." Wu Xiaoping, director of the Wuhan Foreign Languages School's teaching department, said, "The foreign language courses offered by the school are course selection. The foreign language teaching is to go to work. We have such a system before the college entrance examination reform."


However, in the context of the new college entrance examination, “choice of class” and “walking class” are no longer self-issued for one or two courses due to the characteristics of the course. It is a change of the talent training mode. The "two foundations and one reference" form a set of college entrance examination enrollment mode and talent training mode for classified examination, comprehensive evaluation and multiple admissions.


It was just after a similar attempt that Wu Xiaoping felt that the new college entrance examination should be selected from three of the six disciplines. The 20 combinations should take into account the problem of venue accommodation after classification, layered teaching, and the ability and quantity of teachers. "It is not easy to arrange courses, and it is not easy to arrange classes!"


The entrance examination reform affects higher education


Can't just choose points and choose people


Whether it is active or passive, the impact of reform on basic education seems to have been clearly seen, but the reform of the college entrance examination - the impact of higher education does not seem as obvious as people expect.


Chen Zhiwen believes that the reform of the new college entrance examination will inevitably bring about the benefits of higher education. "For example, the impact on the mode and direction of colleges and universities has a significant effect on reversing the situation of the school." Chen Zhiwen said that the new college entrance examination is based on professionalism. Under the voluntary reporting mode, the characteristics of the university itself and the advantages of the discipline will be emphasized. Even after the reform, even the “985”, “211” or “double-class” colleges cannot guarantee that a decent score can be accepted and suitable. student. "At this point, the reform has actually formed a synergy with the 'double-first-class' construction, forcing colleges and universities to do something different and re-finding their own positioning."


For a long time, people often criticize the enrollment of colleges and universities: "It is not the selection of people, but the selection of points." Even some people have extreme descriptions, colleges do not need to send someone to enroll students, the process of enrollment is completely done by computers: the computer simplifies each candidate into a score, and then brings these "scores" back to school "one size fits all".


“Some students are obsessed with certain professions. For example, they like robots. They can win gold medals in competitions around the world, but they may not be selected by the college entrance examination.” Tian Tianlin, the 80th Middle School of Beijing, said, how do we pass the college entrance examination reform? Really give these children a green light?


The expectations of the headmaster of the middle school seem simple and normal, but the challenge is huge.


The college entrance examination not only faces the choice of children who have special skills in some aspects. After the new college entrance examination, most children will change the status of the past one thousand people. Their secondary school learning has undergone fundamental changes and become individualized individuals.


Many experts said that the preparations for colleges and universities do not seem to be sufficient.


Wu Xianchao, deputy director of the Wuhan University of Technology, said that after the State Council promulgated the examination reform document for the admissions system in 2014, the impact on various universities was enormous. "The talents coming in in the future are personalized. Different students must be trained to meet the requirements of the school. Different types of students should also find a way out."


Wu Xianchao believes that under the background of the new college entrance examination, middle schools and universities should not be separated from each other, and the exchanges between universities and secondary schools can be divided into "hard communication" and "soft communication." Online communication is hard communication. For example, for the new college entrance examination system, colleges and universities must first ask for the subject selection, which is hard communication. There are more soft communication under the line. For example, for career planning, the university can send experts and professors to the middle school to give lectures, introduce and explain the majors of colleges and universities, accept candidates and parents to visit the school. "In fact, the university's similar resources are very rich, but the university's preparation is not sufficient, and the communication connection with the middle school is not sufficient. The future development potential in this area is very large." Wu Xianchao said.


It should be said that the new round of college entrance examination reform initiated in 2014 is a reform of the most comprehensive and thorough system in China's history. It not only adjusts the examination subjects, but also makes fundamental adjustments to the admissions. Although many difficulties have been encountered in the process of reform, many problems have been discovered, and criticism and questioning have never been interrupted. However, the most important thing in the reform of the college entrance examination should be persistence. "I also hope that all sectors of the society will be tolerant of the college entrance examination reform. Don't over-enlarge the details. Only when everyone is tolerant and support, the college entrance examination reform can be strengthened!" Chen Zhiwen said.


Reform is not easy, and it is changed and cherished.

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